Friday, December 14, 2007

Automobile History


The first automobile production began in France about 1890, but the first automobile gasoline appeared in Germany. Commercial production in United States began around 1900 and was qualitatively inferior to that in Europe. The Industry was an assortment of small firm, each tuning out a view car by handicraft methods. American automobile plants were assembly operation that use parts made by independent suppliers. By contrast, European companies were more likely to build the entire car themselves. The early firm originated in various ways – from bicycle makers, carriage and wagon makers, machinery operation of all kind and tinkerers. In 1976 the Motor Vehicle manufacturers Association had 11 members. This trend involve consolidation of some companies as well as elimination of the weakest firm. The same pattern emerge in Japan and Europe.

During the first year of production in 20th century, United States established a leadership position in automotive production that went unchallenged for half a century. This achievement was largely associated with Hendri Ford. After some false starts, he founded the Ford Motor Company in 1903 and five years later brought out the famous mode T, the first car to meet the needs of a mass market. To produce this car in quantity and at low cost, Ford introduced the moving Assembly Line technique of mass production in 1913 and thereby secured a dominant position in the industry.

The founding of general motors provided the organizational pattern for successful large-scale motor vehicle production over time. Durant’s ideas were systematized by Alfred P. Sloan. (1875 – 1966) in the 1920s. An additional important Ford contribution to the growth of the American automobile industry was his successful challenging of the Selden patent, claimed to be a comprehensive patent on the gasoline automobile and controlled by the Association of Licensed Automobile Manufacturers.

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