A variety of engine type have been used in motor vehicle. They are generally Internal-Combustion Engines that burn gasoline or diesel fuel oil. Internal Combustion Engine can be classified in several ways. Of the many possibilities, most passenger car engines run on gasoline, have spark ignition, and are of liquid-cooled, four stroke cycles, carbureted, reciprocating type. Diesel Engine which are burnt fuel oil, are becoming more common in automobiles.
Most gasoline engines have carbureted fuel system, these mix gasoline with air in carburetor to form a combustion mixture. Almost all automobiles use reciprocating engines, which have pistons that move up and down in cylinders. Some automobiles, however, use rotary type Wankel Engines.
The chassis include the car frame, power train, wheels and suspension, steering, and brake system. Two type of frame, full and stub are used. The full frame has side, front, back and cross member welded into a single assembly that supports all other parts of the vehicle. The stub frame has separate frames for the front and back that are welded to the car body, which the body forming the center and connecting support.
The automobile’s wheels are attached to the frame by any of tree types of springs; coil, leaf, and torsion bar. All suspension system use shock absorber.
The steering system normally controls the turning of the front wheels. Most cars today have power steering, whereby application of engine power reduces the effort of turning the steering wheel.
Among several impressive new development are mechanism that allow all four wheels – rather than the simply the two front wheels – to steer the car, permitting easier parking and greater stability at highway speeds; and antilock breaks that prevent skidding ever under wet or icy condition.
The power train includes a manual or automatic transmission; a clutch, on car with manual transmission; a drive shaft; a Differential and wheel axles. Although most conventional car generally, use front-mounted engine to drive the rear wheels, an increasing number of newer models use front wheel drive. In some car the engine drive all four wheels.
The purpose of the transmission is to permit a change in the gear ration between the engine crankshaft and the driven wheels. The shift is accomplished in manual transmission by a shift lever operated by the driver. The automatic transmission make the shifts without driver intention.
On car with manual transmission, a clutch a device for connecting and disengaging the engine, is used to relieve the driving pressure through the transmission as gears are shifted.
The drive shaft or propeller shaft, connect the transmission with the differential, an arrangement of gears that allows the wheels to rotate at different rates when a car is turning. The drive shaft contain two types of joints; a slip joint and one or more universal joints. This allows the shaft to change its length and direction as the car wheels move up and down.
Of many body design, the following are the most common. A sedan is a closed body with two or four doors and two cross seats and usually accommodates five or six peoples. In the two doors model, the back of the front seats tip toward to give access to the near seat. A hatch-back is an additional door at the rear. A convertible is an open body design that has a folding top that can be raised or lowered. Open car are recovering their popularity, after a period when they were not made because of the danger of roofless ness in accidents. A hardtop is similar to the two or four door sedan except that it has no side members between the front and rear windows. A station wagon has a special body available on a move or less standard chassis. It has cross seats at the front and either cross or side seats at the rear. It may be built to accommodate up to nine people and it also include additional luggage or cargo space. A sport car is a low, comparatively small car, usually seating two, that is designed for speed and maneuverability.